Princess Charlotte (1796-1817) was the only child of King George IV of England. In December 1813 the engagement of Charlotte to prince Willem, the royal Dutch heir, was announced. In March
In 1816 she married prince Leopold. In 1817 she died after having given birth to a stillborn son the day before, resulting in a nationwide mourning. The attending physician later shot himself.
Without a direct heir to the thrown (all of King George's sisters were too old to have children, and all of his brothers were without child), a mad dash towards matrimony by four of Charlotte's bachelor uncles began. Eventually one of them produced a heir: the future Queen Victoria.
As consolation for his loss, Leopold was made the first king of the Belgians in 1831. Willem married the Russian daughter of the Tsar, Anna Paulowna, in 1816. Since Anna had refused a marriage proposal of Napoleon, and since her brother Tsar Alexander was one of the most important rulers of Europe, this wasn't such a bad catch at all.