Isma'il Pasha ordering his chibouque (Roger Fenton, 1855).
Isma'il Pasha (1813-1865) (real name Kmety Gyorgy) was a Hungarian general in the Ottoman (Turkish) army during the Crimean War.
He's handed a chibouque; a Turkish tobacco pipe with a long stem and a red clay bowl.
He was entrusted with the defense of Kars against the attacks of the Russians. When a famine in the fortress became very worse he handed over the command to an English colonel and pulled off. After the war he published an apology under the title: 'A narrative of the defense of Kars on the 29th of Sept. 1855' (London 1856). He was later Governor General of Kastamonu in Asia Minor.
York Minster Cathedral and Old City Wall, York, England (source)
I've never been to York, a city in northern England. It was founded by the Romans and frequently visited by the Vikings. During its history several walls were build, from which a large portion still exist. Judging by the pictures it looks like a beautiful city.
In honor of commenter Mary (born in Sentinel, Oklahoma) we take a closer look at the Sooner State this time.
The State of Sequoyah was the proposed name for a state to be established in the eastern part of present-day Oklahoma. In 1905, faced by proposals to end their tribal governments, Native Americans of the Five Tribes in Indian Territory proposed this state as a means to retain some control of their land.
The proposed state was ‘Sequoyah’ named in honor of the Cherokee Sequoyah who created an effective writing system for the Cherokee language in 1825. In 1905 a constitutional convention was called and a constitution was adopted. A referendum resulted in 56.279 votes in favor of the constitution and 9.073 votes against.
However the petition for statehood was denied by the US Congress, mainly due to the resistance of Eastern delegates who were afraid there would be too many Western states. Instead, in 1907 Indian and Oklahoma territories were merged into one state whose name is a Choctaw word for 'red people': Oklahoma.
Alexander Leslie-Melville, Viscount Balgonie (1831 – 1857) was a British soldier. He held the title of Lord Balgonie as a courtesy title; he was the eldest son of David Leslie-Melville, 8th Earl of Leven, 7th Earl of Melville.
He served in the Grenadier Guards, and died in 1857 as a result of hard campaigning in the Crimean War. Notice the shabby clothes and the look of dispair. One of the finest portraits of Roger Fenton, 1855.
The Celebration of the Peace of Münster, 18 June 1648 in the Headquarters of the Amsterdam Civic Guard (Rijksmuseum).
This banquet of the Amsterdam Civic Guard in celebration of the Peace of Münster was painted 1648 by Bartholomeus van der Helst (1613-1670). Visible through the window are buildings on the opposite side of a canal; the two façades belong to the brewery 'The Lamb' and the church 'By the Lamb'.
The Schreierstoren at the Prins Hendrikkade in Amsterdam, by Eduard Alexander Hilverdink (1846 - 1891), 23 x 32 cm. Build around 1487, the Schreierstoren used to be part of the first city wall. It's the sole surviving defense tower of Amsterdam.
present day situation
From this site Henry Hudson started his famous trip to explore America on behalve of the Dutch in 1609.
General Ulysses S. Grant Memorial Bridge (Library of Congress)
Over time numerous design proposals had been made for a bridge connecting Washington D.C. with Arlington Memorial Cemetery.
In 1887 architectural firm Smithmeyer & Pelz proposed a bridge in honour of General U.S. Grant, featuring medieval-looking towers and turrets, la bit like the London’s Tower Bridge, which was designed in 1884.
The first proposal (Library of Congress)
Actually this was their second proposal, the first plan was a bit more modest. Finally in 1932 the present low-to-the-ground Memorial Bridge was opened.
The designs are part of the new exhibit at the National Building Museum: ‘Imagine Washington D.C. as it could have been’.
La Belle Ferronnière, attributed to Leonardo Da Vinci, 1490-1496 (Louvre Museum, Paris)
Currently this painting is part of the Leonardo da Vinci exhibition in The National Gallery in London. This is the most complete display of the Italian master’s surviving paintings ever. Only 20 known paintings by Leonardo Da Vinci did survive, the National Gallery has brought together 9 of these paintings for the exhibition.
The proposed Territory of Colorado (based on the boundaries of the counties in 1859)
I want to make a series of posts concerning countries which just didn’t make it into reality. While I was investigating this I also noticed there have been a lot of embyo US states which just didn’t make it into real statehood. In honor of commenter Nate I’ll start with the secession of Southern California.
In 1859, nine years after California joined the Union, Assemblyman Andrés Pico submitted a bill that called for the secession of the southern counties along the northern border of San Luis Obispo County. These cow countries were annoyed by the unfair tax laws; they had to pay twice as much property tax as the mining regions, while they had only 5% of the population of these mining regions.
The southern region would have become a federal territory named after the Colorado River (the present state of Colorado wasn't named until 1861). The legislature passed this bill (the ‘Pico Act’), two-thirds of voters in the affected counties approved it, and it was signed by the Governor John B. Weller. But in Washington, due to the crisis in 1860, the proposal never came to a Congressional vote.
If you want to have some insight in the cultural differences between the Dutch and the US you could take a look at this overview made by an ex American expat in the Netherlands. For instance this fun fact: did you know that in Holland the cows say 'Boo' instead of 'Moo'?
The entry of Napoleon into Amsterdam by Matthieu van Bree
(painting finished in 1813).
Last week it was exactly 2oo years ago that Napoleon visited
Amersfoort. I’m still searching for more info about this visit, meanwhile a painting of his visit to
Amsterdam, Sunday October 9, 1811. It is one of the largest paintings in the
Netherlands (20 x 13 feet). It is currently in restoration while on display in
the Amsterdam Museum.
The painting in the Amsterdam Museum, notice the lookalike (photo nu.nl).
King Louis XIV of France meets Philip IV of Spain and his
bride Maria Theresa (Philip’s daughter) at Pheasant Island, June 1660.
On Pheasant Island the French princess Elisabeth de Bourbon
(age 13) met her Spanish husband Philip IV of Spain (age 10), while at the same
time his sister Anne of Austria (age 14) met her husband Louis XIII (age 14), the
brother of Elisabeth, on November 25th, 1615. Both couples were
already married by proxy the day before.
In 1660 Louis’ son, the (in)famous Sun King Louis XIV of France met
his bride Maria Theresa of Spain (daughter of Philip) at the island. After the
wedding, Louis wanted to consummate the marriage as quickly as possible,
however the new queen's mother-in-law (and aunt) arranged a private
consummation instead of the public one that was the custom.
Charles & Marie Louise
In 1679 Philip’s son king Charles II of Spain met his bride Marie Louise d’Orleans at the island. Because of all this inbreeding
Charles II was severely intellectually and physically disabled. He was unable
to chew, and his tongue was so large that his speech could barely be
understood. After the marriage Marie Louise became depressed and died at age
26. Charles remarried, but both marriages were childless.
After Charles' death in 1700, the lack of a heir
led Louis XIV of France (you may know him of his soundbite "L'État, c'est moi") to gain control over the large Spanish empire. This
provoked a massive coalition of the English, Dutch, Austrians, Prussians and
Portuguese and resulted in the War of the Spanish Succession; a bloody global
war fought on four continents and three oceans. The war ended when the Treaty of Utrecht was concluded, 20 km from Amersfoort, in 1713.
Pheasant Island is a small island (3,000 sq m) in the middle of the Bidasoa River, on the border between France and Spain.
Spanish: Isla de los Faisanes French: Île des Faisans, Île de l'hôpital or Île de la Conférence. Basque: Konpantzia
The island is a so-called condominium, a place under joint sovereignty of in this case Spain and France. It is administered by the Spanish-Basque town of Irun and the French-Basque town of Hendaye during alternating periods of 6 months.
The island was used as a meeting place were a Spanish king could meet his French fiancee, and vice versa. On November 7th, 1659 one of the treaties ending the Thirty Years' War (the Treaty of the Pyrenees) was signed on this island.
During some weekends people reenact life in a Catholic orphanage in Amersfoort at the end of the 16th century. This is called 'living history'. Amersfoort used to be a catholic town, but during the war of independence against Spain the Netherlands became Protestant. Some towns converted voluntary, some other towns (like Amsterdam and Amersfoort) needed a little push.
Southern Morocco is filled with kasbahs; large fortified self-supporting houses. At Ait Benhaddou you can find several of them. (photo RfA)
On occasion of his 65th birthday my uncle invited 7 family members (including me) to join him on a vacation with a surprise destination. So last week I ended up taking a tour though … Morocco! A friend of my uncle, a Berber, showed us some of the most beautiful places in the south.
The man sitting at the bench is holding an impossible Necker cube. The bars in the window to his left are geometrically valid but practically impossible to assemble. The woman near the stairs is modeled after a figure from Jeroen Bosch’s triptych The Garden of Earthly Delights.
A small part of the right panel of Jeroen Bosch's The Garden of Earthly Delights (1481-1490, Museum Prado Madrid)
"The young American actress whose reported engagement gave one to expect that she would be the first to follow the dictum of a theatrical authority that actresses should marry dramatic critics. However Miss Fealey denied her engagement to an American dramatic critic directly after it was announced. Miss Fealey is well-known to English playgoers. She was leading lady with Sir Henry Irving during his last season in London prior to the provincial tour which culminated in his death."
Magazine The Bystander, 1907.
In 1907 actress Maude Fealy (not 'Fealey') married Denver drama critic Hugo Sherwin, but, after meeting with her mother's bitter disapproval, refused to live with him, even when threatened with court orders. In 1909 they divorced while she starred in a play titled 'Divorce.' She quit the play and secretly married James Durkin, an actor. They performed together in a number of plays, including 'The Right Princess' (1913), an amusing look at 'mental healing' i.e. psychiatry. His career began slipping in the mid-1910s and she began touring vaudeville. Fealy, tired of Durkin, divorced him, and in 1920 married James Cort, the son of her manager. They lived together for a year before she took to the roads. Cort divorced Fealy for abandonment in 1923.
This post was triggered by Sepia Saturday's emancipation theme. Since I'm going on a short holiday I will respond to the other postings in a few days time.
Clara Bow, born in Brooklyn, was an American actress and sex symbol who rose to fame in the silent film era of the 1920s. The picture below was taken when she won a movie magazine contest in 1921, the prize being a part in a film. This was the start of her career.
Jean Arthur, Clara Bow, Jean Harlow and Leone Lane in The Saturday Night Kid (1929)
Thanks to the people at Sepia Saturday for providing me with an excellent excuse to post these pictures.